The group of Polish active cave divers is not bigger then 20 persons. This is mostly result of lack of easy accessible underwater caves in our country. Sumps are only in several caves and are located quite far from cave entrances. The description of main results you can see below.
Explorations in Poland
In Winter 2002 Krzysztof Starnawski pushed the exploration in Kasprowa Niżnia passing throuh the 6'th, FFS Sump and starting climbing the chimney after it. Now the total lenght of underwater passages amount to 630 meters (the longest in Poland), with max depth 24 m. The initial sump is quite easy accessible being located 1 hour from the cave entrance.
Wiktor Bolek explored Mysi Sump in vertical cave Wielka Śnieżna during the winter 2003. It is located 500 m below the cave entrance. Wiktor reached the depth of 15 m, and seen the passage continues down at least to -25 m. The Mysi Sump is located after 2 initial sumps and a narrow slot, so it is one of the most difficult accessible polish diving places. The team operates from bivoac located on - 450 m (??? - II biwak).
In the end of 2001 the team dived in Mokra Dziura (Slovakia). The main problem consist in very low temperature of water - about 1 deg. C, which causes regulator freezing. The problem was solved by using helium based mixes. Wiktor Bolek discovered that mix consist more than 20 % helium completely prevent regulator freezing. This phenomenon is based on helium properties. This gas gets warmer in adiabathic decompression process. The results of exploration results findig of dozens meters of new passage.
Exploration of deepest Romanian resurgence, the Izbucul de la Tauz undertaken by Wiktor Bolek in late nineties has been continued reachnig the depth 85 m 250 meters from the entrance. Last year Włodzimierz Szymanowski passed through the sump knee at 85 m and pushed the terminal point to 424 m from the entrance, ascending to 30 m. The diving conditions in Tauz are not excelent, the visibility rare exceed 2 meters and could be destroyed by the rain in which is quite often this region. The rain also incereases the current, so diving becomes impossible. Water outflowing in Tauz comes from the sink cave Coiba Mare distant over 2,5 km. The passages are large enough to let wooden pieces to come through the system. By the way Tauz expeditions some smaller underwater caves has been explored, including some new parts in another big resurgence Izbucul Galbenei.
During the Summer 2004 Piotr Kępkiewicz supported by Michał Gignal passed through narrow and muddy sump (6 m deep, 20 m long) located on -270 m in Kasztanowa Cave (Hagengebirge, Austria). Another activity in the same country was undertaken by Krzysztof Recielski in the second deep in the world Laprechtsofen Cave, some minor sumps were explored.
The team consist of Wiktor Bolek and Grzegorz Dominik explored Vrulia cave in Croatia to the depth 120 m. The cave entrance is in Adriatic see bay bottom in the depth 45 meters, and opens the big well. Divers found their way back difficult because of strong current directed into the cave.
In the biggining of 2005 the expedition to Optymisticheskaya Cave in Ukraine has been undertaken. The total lenght over 200 km places this cave as the second longest in the world. Optymisticheskaya is totaly horizontal, and developes in gipsum. Andrzej Szerszen found the horizontal slot in the '1st May Lake', but after several meters it becomes to narrow to pass through. Other Activities
Last years are connected with many cognitive and training expeditons to well known major european resurgences located in Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Italy, France, Romania and Switzerland. During many actions our grop improved the diving techniques especially in deep and long dives, and prepares for more complex explorations.
Interesting dive was made by Leszek Czarnecki in 2003 in Bushmansgat, South Africa, who reached the depth of 194 meters as a result of his activity in Nuno Gomes team.
Every Spring the cave diving workshop (Warsztaty Nurkowań Jaskiniowych) is organised by our society. This symposium is an occasion for cave divers meeting, exchange the informaion and evaluate knowledge and techniques.
On the technical side of cave diving the most important event depends on introducing rebreathers. The Inspiration units were used in cave diving and beaten an open circuit in deep explorations.
For the future we plan to evolve the current tendences in our cave diving and improve the cave diving safety.